Definition of Pointing, Flooring, Ground Floor and types


Instead of coating entire surface of the masonry, special mortar finishing work is finished to the exposed joints. This is often referred to as inform. It consists of raking the joints to a depth of ten metric linear unit to twenty metric linear unit and filling it with richer mortar mixes. Just in case} of lime mortar inform combine used is one : a pair of and in case of cement mortar inform combine used is 1 : 3. Inform is ideally fitted to stone masonry as a result of stones area unit having enticing colors and smart resistance to penetration by water. Inform provides perfection to weaker a part of masonry (i.e. to joints) and it adds to aesthetic read of the masonry.


Purpose of flooring is to urge a decent laborious, level and exquisite surface for living. The floors directly resting on the bottom area unit called ground floors whereas the floors of every floor area unit called higher floors.

Ground Floor:

The ground surface is rammed well and a layer of red earth or sand is placed that is compacted. A layer of broken bricks, stones etc. is provided up to one hundred fifty metric linear unit below floor end level and rammed. Whereas ramming the surface is unbroken dampish to urge smart compaction. Then 1 : 4 : 8 concrete of one hundred to one hundred fifty metric linear unit thickness is provided as base course. Over this bed floor end is ordered.

The types of flooring used are:

  1. Brick
  2. Cement concrete
  3. Terrazo
  4. Mosaic
  5. Marble
  6. Tiles
  7. Mud and moorum
  8. Flag stone
  9. Terrazo

1.  Brick:

This is often conjointly an inexpensive floor construction. It’s ordinarily utilized in god owns and factories. Bricks area unit ordered flat or on edges. Bricks of excellent quality ought to be used for the development. Brick layer is provided on sand bed or on lean concrete (1 : 8 : 16) bed. In each cases joints area unit rendered flush and finished with cement mortar.

  1. Cement concrete:

It consists of 2 courses-base course and carrying coat. Base course is ordered over well compacted soil. Its thickness is typically seventy five metric linear unit to one hundred metric linear unit. It consists of lean cement concrete combine (1 : 4 : 8) or lime concrete containing four-hundredth of one : a pair of lime mortar and hour of coarse combination of forty metric linear unit size. Once base course is hardened carrying coat of forty metric linear unit is ordered.

It consists of panels of one m × one m, a pair of m × a pair of m or one m × a pair of m. Alternate panels area unit ordered with one : a pair of : four concrete exploitation wood, glass or amphibole strip separators of one.5 mm to 2.0 metric linear unit thickness. Prime of those panels area unit finished by tamping the surface with wood floats and sound with trowels, until cement suspension seems on prime. It desires natural action for seven to fourteen days. To urge smart look again and again red-oxide finishing coat is provided.

  1. Mosaic:

It consists of a finishing coat of little items of broken tiles of China glazed or of marble organized in numerous patterns set in lime-surkhi or cement mortar. The bottom course is concrete flooring and on that thirty to forty metric linear unit mortar layer is provided.

  1. Marble:

Marble slabs area unit move get marble tiles of twenty to twenty five metric linear unit thickness. They’re ordered on floors like alternative tiles. With power driven machine surface is polished to urge even and shining surface. This kind of flooring is wide utilized in hospitals and temples.

  1. Tiles:

Tiles of clay, cement or terrazzo of ordinary sizes area unit factory-made in factories beneath controlled conditions. On the concrete base, twenty five metric linear unit to thirty metric linear unit thick mortar is ordered and these tiles area unit placed and ironed with trowel or wood mallet. Before inserting tiles care is taken to visualize that, neat cement suspension is applied to bottom aspect and sides of tiles to urge smart bond.

  1. Mud and moorum:

These floorings area unit utilized in low value housing, especially in villages. Over the laborious layer of earth filling mud or moorum layer is provided. The ground desires a skinny wash of scrap a minimum of once a weak.

  1. Flag stone:

Laminated sand stones or slates of twenty metric linear unit to forty metric linear unit thick within the kind of slabs of three hundred metric linear unit × three hundred metric linear unit or 450 metric linear unit × 450 metric linear unit or within the kind of rectangles of size 450 metric linear unit × 600 metric linear unit area unit used as floor finishes. The stone slabs area unit ordered on twenty to twenty five metric linear unit thick mortar cover concrete bed. The joints area unit to be finished with wealthy mortar.

  1. Terrazzo:

Terrazzo finishing coat is applied over concrete flooring to urge pleasing look. Terrazo end consists of seventy five to eightieth of surface marble chips embedded in cement mortar. Marble chips area unit mixed in cement within the proportion 1 : 1.25 to one : a pair of and regarding half dozen metric linear unit terrazzo topping is ordered. The highest is tamped and rolled. Further marble chips area unit unfold throughout tamping to urge correct distribution of marble chips on the surface. Once drying it for twelve to twenty hours, it’s cured for 2–3 days.

Plenty of water is employed throughout grinding. Once every grinding cement grout of cream-like consistency is applied and cured for 6–7 days. Once final grinding and natural action the ground is washed with many water so with dilute acid answer.

Upper Floors:

In past days higher floors were manufactured from timber floors or steel beam and stone slabs. For larger spans jack arch floorings were used. Jack arch floor consisted of I-section steel beams supported on walls and gap between I-sections beams stuffed with concrete arch. Figure 8.8 shows a typical jack arch flooring. In halls of hotels and assembly, several give flat slabs i.e. slabs directly supported over columns. The columns area unit given widened portion referred to as column head. They furnish elegant look to halls, significantly once the top space is high. R.C.C. floors would like correct thickness and reinforcements. They’re found out by structural style engineers. Figure 8.9 shows typical R.C.C. slabs.

Hence the concrete in tension zone don’t contribute in resisting the load. It simply keeps the steel at needed position. In bolstered brick block an endeavor is created to interchange concrete in tension zone by bricks.

In formed concrete floor panels is also used that helps in avoiding type works, storing of sand, coarse aggregates etc. at the positioning and conjointly natural action. Factories manufacture these units that area unit to be placed over supports within the structure.

Roof Definition and types:

Roof is that the higher most portion of the building that protects the building from rain, wind and sun. Varied varieties of roofs used is also divided broadly speaking into 3 sorts.

  1. Flat roofs.
  2. Pitched roofs.
  3. Shells and sunray plates.
  4. Flat roofs:

These roofs area unit nearly flat. But slight slope (not quite 10°) is given to empty out the rain water. Every kind of higher floor floors will function flat roofs. Again and again prime of those roofs area unit treated with water proofing materials-like mix water proofing chemicals in concrete, providing coba concrete.

  1. Pitched roofs:

In the area unites of serious rain falls and blizzard sloping roof are used. The slope of roof shall be quite 10°. They will have slopes the maximum amount as 45° to 60° conjointly. The sloping roofs area unit called pitched roofs. The sloping roofs area unit most well-liked in giant spanned structures like workshops, works buildings and ware homes. Altogether these roofs covering sheets sort of a.C. sheet, G.I. sheets, tiles, slates etc.

  1. Shells and sunray plates.

Shell roof is also outlined as a semicircular surface, the thickness of that is little compared to the opposite dimensions. In these roofs heap of load is transferred by membrane compression rather than by bending as within the case of standard block and beam constructions. Caves area unit having natural shell roofs. Associate in nursing examination of places of worships in-built Asian country, Europe and Muslim nations show that shell structures were in usage for the last 800 to one thousand years.


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