The term mortar is employed to point a paste ready by adding needed amount of water to a combination of binding material like cement or lime and fine mixture like sand.
Properties of a decent mortar :
1) It ought to be low-cost.
2) It ought to be sturdy.
3) It ought to set quickly.
4) It ought to be simply executable.
5) It ought to be capable of developing sensible adhesion with the building units like bricks, stones etc.
6) It ought to be capable of resisting penetration of rain water.
Uses of mortar :
1) To create joints of pipes.
2) To bind the building units like bricks, stones, etc. into a solid mass.
3) To hold out inform and plaster work on exposed surface of masonry.
4) To boost the overall look of structure.
5) To cover the open joints of masonry and masonry.
6) To replenish the cracks detected within the structure throughout maintenance method.
Lime mortar :
In time mortar the lime is employed as binding material. The lime is also fat lime or hydraulic lime is also fat lime or hydraulic lime.
The lime mortar incorporates a high physical property and it are often placed simply.
It possesses sensible cohesiveness with alternative surfaces and shrinks little. It’s sufficiently sturdy, however it hardens slowly.
It is usually used for gently loaded above-ground components of buildings.
Properties of lime mortar :
1) It shrinks little.
2) Its sturdy.
3) It hardens slowly.
4) it’s a high physical property and might be placed simply.
5) It possesses sensible cohesiveness with alternative surfaces.
Cement Mortar :
In cement mortar, the cement is employed as binding materials.
Depending upon the strength needed and importance of labor, the proportion of cement to sand by volume varies from 1:2 to 1:6 or a lot of.
The proportion of cement with reference to sand ought to be determined with due relevance the required sturdiness and dealing conditions.
The cement mortar is employed wherever a mortar of high strength and water-resisting properties if needed like underground constructions, water saturated soils, etc.
Properties of cement mortar :
1) Its a lot of sturdy.
2) It hardens terribly quickly.
3) A shapely mortar provides acid-fast surface.
4) A combination richer than 1:3 is liable to shrinkage.
Special Mortars :
1) Fire-resistant mortar :
It is used with fire-bricks for lining furnaces, fireplace places, ovens, etc.
2) light-weight weight mortar :
This mortar is employed within the sound-proof and heat-proof constructions.
3) Sound fascinating mortar :
To reduce the background level, the sound :
Fascinating plaster is created with the assistance of sound fascinating mortar.
4) X-ray shielding mortar :
This type of mortar is employed for providing the coating coat to walls and ceiling of X-ray cupboards.
Plaster of Paris :
When finely ground mineral is heated at the temperature of 160oC to 170oC, it loses regarding fourteen.7 per cent of its water content within the sort of steam. The ensuing product is thought because the plaster of pairs.
Properties of Plaster of Pairs :
1) Its light-weight in weight.
2) It shows sensible adhesions to the fibrous materials.
3) It sets with negligible shrinkage on drying.
4) It’s not suffering from bacterium it’s a hearth resisting material and it doesn’t enable heat to pass simply.
Uses of Plaster of Pairs :
1) it’s used for decorative plaster work.
2) it’s used as associate degree insulation to safeguard wood or metal columns and beams from extreme temperature.
3) it’s utilized in design, pottery, and dental medicine and in surgery for the shaping of broken bones.
4) POP boards area unit used for ceiling, for internal lining of wall and for partition walls.
The paints area unit the coatings of fluid materials that area unit applied as a final end to any or all surfaces, like walls, ceilings, wood work, metal work etc.
The process of application of paint as a coating is termed as painting.
Constituents of paints :
1) Base :
A base could be a solid substance of a auriferous chemical compound in fine state of division. it’s a principal constituent of paint.
2) Vehicle :
A vehicle could be a liquid substance that keeps the ingredients of paint in liquid suspension.
3) Drier :
A drier could be a substance that accelerates the method of drying of a paint film.
4) Coloring pigment :
Coloring pigment offers needed color for paints.
5) Solvent :
It is a liquid that is mixed in an exceedingly paint to create the paint skinny in order that it are often simply applied on the surface.
Properties of a perfect paint :
1) It ought to be potential to use simply and freely.
2) It ought to dry in an exceedingly cheap time.
3) It ought to kind laborious and sturdy surface.
4) It shouldn’t be simply suffering from atmosphere.
5) It ought to possess enticing and pleasing look.
6) It shouldn’t be harmful to be health of employees.
Objects of painting :
1) It prevents decay of wood and corrosion of metals.
2) Its accustomed provide sensible look to the surface.
3) It protects the surfaces from weathering effects of the atmosphere.
4) It provides a swish surface for simple cleansing.
Different types of paints relying upon their constituents:
1) Metal paint :
It contains finely ground metal in spirit or oil varnish. It’s wide used for painting gas tanks, water pipes and oil tanks.
2) Oil paint:
This is often the normal paint. It’s usually applied in 3 coats of variable composition. The oil paints area unit utilized in general for all sorts of surfaces, like wood work, walls, ceilings, metal work etc.
3) Enamel paint :
It contains pigment, oil crude spirit and resiny material. It are often used for each external and internal walls.
4) Hydrocarbon paint:
This kind of paint is factory-made by dissolving asphalt or vegetable hydrocarbon in oil or crude. It’s used for painting iron works underneath water.
5) Emulsion paint:
It contains binding materials like polyvinyl resin, artificial resins etc. This paint is usually recommended to be used on stucco, bricks and masonry surfaces that contain free alkali.
6) Cement paint :
This paint consists of white cement, pigment, accelerator and alternative additives. Cement paints area unit being extensively used for painting plastered masonry, stone masonry and concrete.
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