The following area unit the fundamental components of a building:
3. Walls and columns
4. Sills, lintels and chejjas
5. Doors and windows
8. Steps, stairs and lifts
9. Finishing work
10. Building services.
The functions of those components and therefore the main demand of them is given during this article.
Foundation is that the most vital a part of the building. Building activity starts with excavation the bottom for foundation and so building it. It’s the lower most a part of the building. It transfers the load of the building to the bottom. Its main functions and necessities are:
(a) Distribute the load from the structure to soil equally and safely.
(b) To anchor the building to the bottom so underneath lateral hundreds building won’t move.
(c) It prevents the building from overturning because of lateral forces.
(d) It provides level surface for the development of super structure.
The portion of the wall between the bottom level and therefore the ground floor level is named pedestal. It’s typically of stone masonry. If the muse is on piles, a pedestal beam is forged to support wall higher than floor level. At the highest of pedestal a humid proof course is provided. it’s typically seventy five millimeter thick plain concrete course.
The perform of the pedestal is to stay the bottom floor higher than ground level, freed from moistness. Its height isn’t but 450 millimeter. It’s needed that pedestal level is a minimum of one hundred fifty millimeter higher than the road level, so connections to underground system is created.
2. Walls and Columns:
The perform of walls and columns is to transfer the load of the structure vertically downwardly to transfer it to foundation. Except for this wall performs the subsequent functions also:
(a) It encloses building space into completely different compartments and provides privacy.
(b) It provides safety from felony and insects.
(c) It keeps the building heat in winter and funky in summer.
4. Sills, Lintels and Chejjas:
A framework mustn’t be directly placed over masonry. It’s placed over fifty millimeter to seventy five millimeter thick plain concrete course provided over the masonry. This course is named as sill. Lintels area unit the R.C.C. or stone beams provided over the door and window openings to transfer the load transversally thus on see that door or framework isn’t stressed unduly.
The breadth of lintels is adequate the breadth of wall whereas thickness to be provided depends upon the gap size. Chejja is that the projection given outside the wall to safeguard doors and windows from the rain. The projection of chejja varies from 600 millimeter to 800 millimeter. Typically drops conjointly also are are provided to chejjas to enhance aesthetic look and also to urge extra protection from sun and rain.
5. Doors and Windows:
The perform of a door is to relinquish access to completely different rooms within the building and to deny the access whenever necessary. Range of doors ought to be minimum potential. The dimensions of the door ought to be of such dimension as can facilitate the movement of the biggest object doubtless to use the door.
Windows area unit provided to urge light-weight and ventilation within the building. They’re set at a height of zero.75 m to 0.9 m from the ground level. In hot and wet regions, the window space ought to be fifteen to twenty per cent of the ground space.
Another thumb rule accustomed verify the dimensions and therefore the range of windows is for each thirty money supply of within volume there ought to be one money supply window gap.
Floors area unit the vital element of a building. They offer working/useful space for the occupants. The bottom floor is ready by filling brick loony, waste stones, and gravel and well compacted with not but one hundred millimeter sand layer on its high.
A lean concrete of one: four: eight, one hundred millimeter thick is arranged. On this a humid proof course could also be provided. Then floor finishing is completed as per the need of the owner.
Least expensive floor end for a moderate home is with twenty to twenty five millimeter wealthy mortar course finished with red chemical compound. The most expensive floor end is mosaic or marble finishing.
Roof is that the high most portion of the building which give high cowl to the building. It ought to be leak proof. Sloping roof like covered and A.C. sheet offer leak proof cowl simply. However they are doing not offer provision for the development of extra floor.
Covered roof offer sensible thermal protection. Flat roofs offer provision for added floors. Terrace adds to the comfort of occupants. Water tanks is simply placed over the flat roofs.
8. Step, Stairs and Lifts:
Steps offer convenient access from ground level to ground floor level. They’re needed at doors within the outer wall. 250 to three hundred millimeter wide and one hundred fifty millimeter rise is right size for steps. In no case the dimensions of 2 consecutive steps vary.
Range of steps needed depends upon the distinction within the levels of the bottom and therefore the floor. Stairs offer access from floor to floor. They must consists of steps of uniform sizes.
Bottom portion of block (ceiling), walls and high of floor want sleek finishing with plaster. Then they’re supplied with white wash, distemper or paints or tiles. The perform of finishing work is:
(a) Offer covering
(b) Improve aesthetic read
(c) Rectify defective skill
(d) Finishing work for pedestal consists in inform whereas for floor it consists in sharpening.
10. Building Services:
Facility, sanitation and voidance works, electrical provide work and construction of cabinets and show cases represent major building services. For storing water from municipal provide or from tanker a sump is made within the house property close to street.
From the sump water is pumped-up to overhead tanks placed on or higher than roof level thus on get water all the twenty four hours. Plumbing work is formed thus on get water in room, bathrooms, water closets, sinks and garden faucets. For debilitating rain water from roofs, down take pipes of a minimum of one hundred millimeter diameters ought to be used.
Correct slopes ought to be to roof towards down take pipe. These pipes ought to be fastened at ten to fifteen millimeter below the roof surface so rain water is directed to the down take pipe simply. The healthful fittings area unit to be connected to stone ware pipes with appropriate traps and chambers.
Stone ware pipes area unit then connected to underground voidance of municipal lines or to the storage tank. Several woodworking works area unit needed for building service. They’re within the variety of showcases, cupboards, racks etc.