Brick is obtained by molding smart clay into a block that is dried so burnt. This can be the oldest building block to interchange stone. Manufacture of brick started with hand molding, sun drying and burning in clamps. the scale of the bricks area unit of ninety millimeter × ninety millimeter × ninety millimeter and a hundred ninety millimeter × ninety millimeter × forty millimeter.
With mortar joints, the scale of those bricks area unit taken as two hundred millimeter × a hundred millimeter × a hundred millimeter and two hundred millimeter × a hundred millimeter × fifty millimeter.
Types of Bricks
Bricks is also broadly speaking classified as:
(i) Building bricks
(ii) Paving bricks
(iii) Fire bricks
(iv) Special bricks.
(i) Building Bricks:
These bricks area unit used for the development of walls.
(ii) Paving Bricks:
These area unit shiny bricks and area unit used as pavers.
(iii) Fire Bricks:
These bricks area unit specially created to face up to chamber temperature. Silicon oxide bricks belong to the current class.
(iv) Special Bricks:
These bricks area unit completely different from the unremarkably used building bricks with relevance their form and therefore the purpose that they’re created. A number of such bricks area unit listed below:
(a) Specially formed bricks
(b) Facing bricks
(c) Perforated building bricks
(d) Burnt clay hollow bricks
(e) Sewer bricks
( f ) Acid resistant bricks.
(a) Specially formed Bricks: Bricks of special shapes area unit factory-made to satisfy the wants of various things. Bull pug-nosed brick, Can’t brick, support brick, brick brick, Cornice brick.
(b) Facing Bricks:
These bricks area unit utilized in the outer face of masonry. Once these bricks area unit provided, application isn’t needed. The quality size of those bricks area unit a hundred ninety × ninety × ninety millimeter or a hundred ninety × ninety × forty millimeter.
(c) Perforated Building Bricks:
These bricks area unit factory-made with space of perforation of thirty to forty five per cent. The realm of every perforation shouldn’t exceed five hundred mm2. The perforation ought to be uniformly distributed over the surface. They’re factory-made within the size a hundred ninety × a hundred ninety × ninety millimeter and 290 × ninety × ninety millimeter.
(d) Burn’t Clay Hollow Bricks:
They are lightweight in weight. They’re used for the development of partition walls. they supply smart thermal insulation to buildings. they’re factory-made within the sizes a hundred ninety × a hundred ninety × ninety millimeter, 290 × ninety × ninety millimeter and 290 × one hundred forty × ninety millimeter.
e) Sewer Bricks:
These bricks area unit used for the development of waste lines. They’re factory-made from surface clay, hearth clay sedimentary rock or with the mixture of those. they’re factory-made within the sizes a hundred ninety × ninety × ninety millimeter and a hundred ninety × ninety × forty millimeter. the typical strength of those bricks ought to be a minimum of seventeen.5 N/mm2. The water absorption shouldn’t be over ten per cent.
( f ) Acid Resistant Bricks:
These bricks area unit used for floorings probably to be subjected to acid attacks, lining of chambers in chemical plants, lining of sewers carrying industrial wastes etc.
Properties of Bricks
The following area unit the desired properties of excellent bricks:
Color ought to be uniform and bright.
Bricks ought to have plane faces. They ought to have sharp and true right angulate corners.
Bricks ought to be of normal sizes as prescribed by codes.
They should possess fine, dense and uniform texture. They ought to not possess fissures, cavities, loose grit and unburnt lime.
When affected with hammer or with another brick, it ought to manufacture metallike sound.
Finger scratching shouldn’t manufacture any impression on the brick.
Crushing strength of brick shouldn’t be but three.5 N/mm2. A field trial for strength is that once born from a height of zero.9 m to 1.0 millimeter on a tough ground, the brick shouldn’t entered items.
(viii) Water Absorption:
After immercing the brick over water for twenty-four hours, water absorption shouldn’t be over twenty per cent by weight. For class-I works this limit is fifteen per cent.
Bricks shouldn’t show white patches once soaked in water for twenty-four hours so allowed to dry in shade. White patches area unit because of the presence of sulfate of metal, atomic number 12 and atomic number 19. They keep the masonry for good in damp and wet conditions.
(x) Thermal Conductivity:
Bricks ought to have low thermal conduction, in order that buildings engineered with them area unit cool in summer and heat in winter.
(xi) Sound Insulation:
Heavier bricks area unit poor insulators of sound whereas lightweight weight and hollow bricks give smart sound insulation.
(xii) Fire Resistance:
Fire resistance of bricks is sometimes smart. Really bricks area unit accustomed in close steel columns to shield them from hearth.