1) Stratified Rocks – These styles of rocks possess plane of stratification simply be separate on these planes. Eg. substance rocks.
2) Un-stratified Rocks – These styles of rocks doesn’t possess plane of stratification & they crystalline granular or compact granular. Eg. Ingenious rocks.
3) Foliated Rocks – These styles of rocks have an inclination to separate up in definite direction solely & having foliated structure. Eg.Metamorphic rocks.
Requirements of fine building stone:-
1) Crushing – A good building stone ought to have higher crushing strength i.e. bigger than one hundred N/mm2.
2) Hardness – A good building stone ought to have adequate hardness.
3) Durability – A good building stones should be sturdy long lasting nature.
4) Fire resistance – They should have smart fireplace resistance properties.
5) Seasoning/weathering – They even have smart weathering resistance properties.
6) Water resistance – They should have less water absorption properties.
7) Economy – They should be economical on the market.
8) Attrition – A good building stone ought to have less wear & tear, abrasion & erosion properties.
9) Facing & dressing – A good building stones ought to be simply shaped, wanted & dressed.
10) Specific gravity – A good building stone ought to have higher relative density i.e. over two.7.
11) Texture – The structure of the great building stone ought to be compact fine crystalline. They don’t have any cracks, cavities & patches.
12) Toughness – A good building stone ought to have robust .
Characteristics of stone:-
1) Appearance –
Stones ought to have fine, compact texture & uniform color.
2) Structure –
The structure of stones ought to be uniform while not cracks, fractures, cavities etc.
3) Strength –
Stone ought to have higher crushing strength i.e. bigger than one hundred N/mm2.
4) Weight –
The weight of stones ought to be right smart for numerous construction sites. Eg. For dam walls – serious stones square measure used for domes, arches – light-weight stones square measure used.
5) Hardness –
Stones ought to have adequate hardness.
6) Toughness –
Stone ought to have robust
7) Specific gravity –
Stone ought to have higher relative density i.e. in between two.3 to 2.5.
8) Seasoning –
Stones ought to be seasoned.
9) Work ability –
Stones ought to be viable for cutting, dressing with needed shapes.
10) Chemical resistance –
Stones ought to resist alkalis, acids, corrosive gases etc.
11) Durability –
Stones ought to be sturdy long lasting nature.
12) Water resistance –
Stones ought to have less water absorption properties.
Quarrying and dressing of stone
Quarrying of stones :
The method of removal of stones from their natural bed by victimization completely different operations is named production.
Methods of Quarrying :
a) Digging –
This methodology is employed once the quarry consists of little & soft items of stones.
b) Heating –
This methodology is employed once the natural rock bed is horizontal * little in thickness.
c) Wedging –
This methodology is employed once the onerous rock consists of natural fissure. once natural fissures square measure absent then artificial fissures square measure ready by drilling holes.
Wedging needed tools –
i) Steel wedge
ii) round shape steel pin or plug
iii) Flat steel wedge
iv) wood plug
v) power drill
d) Blasting –
It is the method of removal of stones with the assistance of controlled explosives is crammed within the holes of the stones. Line of elbow grease plays vital role within the blasting method.
Following steps square measure utilized in the blasting process;
1) Drilling holes – Blast holes square measure trained by victimization drilling machines.
2) Charging – Explosive powders square measure fed into the clean & dried blast holes.
3) Tamping – The remaining portion of the blast holes square measure crammed by clay, ash, fuse & wiring.
4) Firing –The fuses of blasting holes square measure discharged by victimization wattage offer or match sticks.
Dressing of stones:-
1) Rough dressing quarry – it’s the method of stone dressing which supplies the broken stones in to the appropriate items the shapes & sizes.
2) Pitched face dressing – it’s the method of stone dressing which supplies constant plane of the surface.
3) Rock face dressing – it’s the method of stone dressing which supplies the four edges having two.5 cm surface distance by victimization chisels.
4) Punched dressing – it’s the method of stone dressing which supplies the parallel ridges with needed gaps between the surfaces.
Stone dressing tools:-
1) Mason’s hammer
2) Spacing hammer
3) Scabbing hammer
4) Club hammer
5) Soft stone chisel
6) Claw chisel
7) Punching chisel
8) purpose chisel
9) Drafting chisel
10) Pitching tool